PEPRKs (PEP carboxylase kinases) contain only one catalytic domain (Harmon et al., 2001).
In tobacco, CPK-silenced plants displayed a reduced and delayed hypersensitive response to the fungal Avr9 elicitor (Romeis et al., 2001). Segmental duplication played a predominant role in CDPK-Sn RK gene expansion. The analysis showed that PEPRK was more preferentially retained than other subfamilies and that CPK was retained similarly to Sn RK. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2000.00787.x Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Sanders, D., Pelloux, J., Brownlee, C., and Harper, J. A total of 49 Br CPKs, 14 Br CRKs, 3 Br PPCKs, 5 Br PEPRKs, and 56 Br Sn RKs were identified in B. All Br CDPK-Sn RK proteins had highly conserved kinase domains. doi: 10.1105/tpc.002899 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Schmid, M., Davison, T. By statistical analysis of the number of CDPK-Sn RK genes in each species, we found that the expansion of the CDPK-Sn RK gene family started from angiosperms.
Dating 50 Gribskov
In plants, transient changes in calcium content in the cytosol (calcium signatures) have been observed during growth, development and stress conditions (Evans et al., 2001; Harper, 2001; Knight and Knight, 2001; Sanders et al., 2002). doi: 10.1016/20 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Ritchie, S. Intracellular Ca signals are produced in plant cells by a variety of stimuli, such as changes in environmental conditions, interaction with microbes, and developmental programs (Bush, 1995; Ehrhardt et al., 1996; Hammond-Kosack and Jones, 1996; Knight et al., 1996; Taylor and Hepler, 1997; Pei et al., 2000; Assmann and Wang, 2001; Murata et al., 2001; Mc Ainsh et al., 2002; Plieth and Trewavas, 2002; Ritchie et al., 2002). Gh CPK1 was the first cotton CPK gene to be identified and was considered to play a role in the calcium signaling events associated with fiber elongation (Huang et al., 2008). Arabidopsis thaliana CPK23 (At CPK23) is a positive regulator of the response to drought and salt stress (Ma and Wu, 2007), whereas At CPK6 may be crucial in positively regulating methyl-jasmonate signaling in guard cells (Munemasa et al., 2011). Plants have multiple calcium stores, including the apoplast, vacuole, nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria and chloroplasts.
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