Of course, these design styles are not eligible for chronological seriation.
For example, knives in early medieval times in Europe are said to show no chronological variation.
The data presented in this example was simulated by Win Basp.In 1971, Kendall proposed the use of multidimensional scaling techniques for seriation problems, and this approach has also been used by some other scientists (see Baxter 2003, pp. Baxter also presents a review of statistical methods for seriation and a description of these approaches (pp. Today, the most popular seriation method both for contextual and frequency problems is based on correspondence analysis. Using this technique, not only the sequence of the objects but also those of the design styles is established.The sequence of the first axis of a correspondence analysis is considered the best seriation order (Shennan 1997, p. Note that external evidence is needed to establish the direction of the sequence calculated, i.e.This is called the arch effect by Hill and Gauch (1980).Both Kendall and Jensen & Høilund Nielsen (1997) created artificial data sets to show that the parabola results in ideal circumstances.
The raw data are stored in an unsorted binary contingency table indicating which design style can be found in which context by a star symbol.For example, consider the first column: context 3 contains the design styles blackrim, bottle, and handle. Contextual seriation sorts the design styles and the contexts in such a way that the star symbols are found as close as possible to the diagonal of the table.The resulting scatterplot showed the form of a horse-shoe where the graves were arranged on the curve according to their chronological order. Similarly, a mapping of the component scores for the first two axes of the correspondence analysis result will display a parabola if the design styles considered are controlled by one factor only (like chronology).In addition to temporal organization, seriation results may reflect assemblage differences in social status, age, sex or those resulting from regional variation (or a combination of two or more of these factors). 343) presents a seriation result of Danish hoards based on artefact types like daggers, axes, and swords.