Some targets were not sites of heavy industrial production but part of the production and movement of materiel.
Although the Ruhr had always been a target for the RAF from the start of the war, the organized defences and the large amount of industrial pollutants produced that gave a semi-permanent smog or industrial haze hampered accurate bombing.
The Battle of the Ruhr of 1943 was a 5-month long campaign of strategic bombing during the Second World War against the Nazi Germany Ruhr Area, which had coke plants, steelworks, and 10 synthetic oil plants.
The campaign bombed twenty-six major Combined Bomber Offensive targets.
Electronic navigation aids such as "Oboe", which had been tested against Essen in January 1943, meant the Pathfinders could mark the targets despite the industrial haze and cloud cover that obscured the area by night.The opening of the battle of the Ruhr began with a 442 aircraft attack on Essen, the primary city targeted by the British Area bombing directive. fickdates Göttingen Three waves of bombers (a mixture of Wellingtons, Halifaxes, Stirlings and Lancasters) dropped their incendiary and time-delayed bombs in under an hour.The Stirling was also limited to a lower operational height.Bombers could carry a range of bombs - Medium Capacity bombs of about 50% explosive by weight, High Capacity "Blockbusters" that were mostly explosive, and incendiary devices.
Dating portal test Krefeld
Only 153 aircraft bombed within three miles (5 km) of the aiming point Operation Chastise; 14 bombers in attack.Bouncing bombs breach the Möhne and Eder Dams, but fail to disrupt the water supply or hydroelectrical power to the Ruhr Area more than briefly. 719 bombers attacked Wuppertal; Oboe marking was used, and being relatively close to the UK maximum payloads were carried.The combined use of the latter two were most effective in setting fires in urban areas. British raids were by night - the losses in daylight raids having been too heavy to bear.During the battle of the Ruhr, Bomber Command estimated about 70% of their aircraft losses were due to fighters.
Through the summer of 1943, the Germans increased the ground-based anti-aircraft defences in the Ruhr Area; by July 1943 there were more than 1,000 large flak guns (88 mm caliber guns or greater) and 1,500 lighter guns (chiefly 20 mm and 37 mm calibre).The British bomber force was made up in the main of the twin-engined Vickers Wellington medium bomber and the four-engined "heavies", the Short Stirling, Handley Page Halifax and Avro Lancaster.The Wellington and Stirling were the two oldest designs and limited in the type or weight of bombs carried.In his study of the German war economy, Adam Tooze stated that during the Battle of the Ruhr, Bomber Command severely disrupted German production. The armaments industry was facing a steel shortfall of 400,000 tons.After doubling production in 1942, production of steel increased only by 20 percent in 1943.