With the establishment of the Kalmar Union (1397–1523) between Denmark, Norway and Sweden, by about 1416 Copenhagen had emerged as the capital of Denmark when Eric of Pomerania moved his seat to Copenhagen Castle.This makes it the oldest university in Denmark and one of the oldest in Europe.
This included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts.The earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus Mercatorum, meaning Merchants' Harbour or, in the Danish of the time, Købmannahavn.Defensive ramparts and moats were completed and by 1177 St. Attacks by the Germans continued, and after the original fortress was eventually destroyed by the marauders, islanders replaced it with Copenhagen Castle.Copenhagen's defences were reinforced with a series of towers along the city wall.After an extended siege from July 1535 to July 1536, during which the city supported Christian II's alliance with Malmö and Lübeck, it was finally forced to capitulate to Christian III.
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In 1186, a letter from Pope Urban III states that the castle of Hafn (Copenhagen) and its surrounding lands, including the town of Hafn, were given to Absalon, Bishop of Roskilde 1158–1191 and Archbishop of Lund 1177–1201, by King Valdemar I.On Absalon's death, the property was to come into the ownership of the Bishopric of Roskilde.Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology, pharmaceuticals and clean technology.Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become increasingly integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region.Originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century.
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Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions, defences and armed forces.
These finds indicate that Copenhagen's origins as a city go back at least to the 11th century.
Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age.
Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries.
The name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.